• Біологічна і біоорганічна хімія  (англ. мовою). Biological and bioorganical chemisrty. Навч. посібник. Рек. МОНУ 	Мардашко О.О.

Навчальний посібник з біологічної та біоорганічної хімії для самостійного навчання студентів, містить коротке пояснення всіх розділів дисциплін, відповідає на основні контрольні питання відповідно до Типової програми Міністерства охорони здоров’я України. Ця книга допоможе в орієнтації у великому обсязі матеріалу не тільки студентам 1-го і 2-го курсів, які вивчають біоорганічну та біохімічну хімію, але і студентам 3-го та 4-го курсів для підготовки до ліцензійного іспиту “Crock-1”. Книга написана для студентів вищих медичних закладів III-IV рівнів акредитації.

The teaching textbook in the Biological and Bioorganic Chemistry for the students self-study contains the short explanation of all discipline chapters, answers the key control questions in the accordance to the Typ- ical Program of the Ukraine health Ministry. This book will help in the orientation in the big volume of material not only to students of the 1-st and 2-nd course both, which study Bioorganic and Biochemical Chemis- try, but to the students of 3-rd and 4-th course for the preparation to the license exam “Crock-1”. The book is written for the students of the High Medical School of the III – IY levels of accreditation.

contents

Section I. Biologically important classes of bioorganic compounds.

Biopolymers and their structural components................7

Chapter 1. Theoretical basis of the structure and reactivity

of bioorganic compounds. .................................................7

1.1. Classification, nomenclature and isomerism of bioorganic

compounds. The nature of chemical bonds. ..................................7

1.2. Classification of chemical reactions. Reactivity of alkanes,

alkenes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, amines..................................14

1.3. Structure and properties of aldehydes and ketones......................19

1.4. Oxidation of aldehydes and ketones............................................22

1.4. Structure, properties and biological significance of carboxylic

acids.............................................................................................24

Chapter 2. Higher fatty acids. Lipids. Phospholipids. α-amino acids,

peptides, proteins..............................................................27

2.1. Higher fatty acids. Lipids. Phospholipids....................................27

2.2. Amino acid composition of proteins and peptides.......................31

2.3. Structural organization of proteins. Physico-chemical properties

of proteins. Reactions deposition of proteins. Denaturation Levels

of the structure of protein molecules. ..........................................40

Chapter 3. Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides. Oligo-and

polysaccharides................................................................45

3.1. Carbohydrates. The structure and chemical properties of

monosaccharides..........................................................................45

Chapter 4. Biologically active heterocyclic compounds. Nucleosides,

nucleotides, nucleic acids ................................................52

4.1. Classification, structure and significance of heterocyclic

compounds...................................................................................52

4.2. Structure and biochemical functions of nucleosides and

nucleotides...................................................................................60

4.3. Structure and biological role of nucleic acids..............................61

Section II. The general pattern of metabolism...............................65

Chapter 5. The biochemical components of cells. ............................65

4

Chapter 6. Enzymes and coenzymes, coenzyme function of vitamins.

Regulation of metabolism................................................68

6.1. Enzymes. Structure, physico-chemical properties of proteins,

enzymes, classified by type of reaction .......................................68

6.2. Mechanism of action and determination of enzyme activity.......70

6.3. Kinetics of enzymatic catalysis. Enzyme inhibitors....................70

6.4. Cofactors and coenzymes. Coenzyme functions of vitamins ......72

Chapter 7. Basic laws of metabolism Citric acid cycle .....................74

7.1. Metabolism. Catabolism, anabolism. The general path of reform

of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids.................................................74

7.2. Citric acid cycle ...........................................................................75

Chapter 8. Molecular Basis of bioenergetics. ...................................77

8.1. Bioenergetics processes: biological oxidation, oxidative

phosphorylation, ATP synthesis...................................................77

8.2. Chemiosmotic theory of oxidative phosphorylation.

Inhibitors and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation .............80

8.3. Shuttle transport mechanisms across the membrane

of mitochondria............................................................................86

8.4. The formation of free radicals, peroxides and antioxidants.........90

Section III. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids

and its regulation...........................................................93

Chapter 9. Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation..................93

9.1. Metabolism of carbohydrates. Anaerobic oxidation of glucose –

glycolysis and glycogen – glycogenolysis...................................93

9.2. Aerobic oxidation of glucose. Alternative ways of sharing

monosaccharides. The metabolism of fructose and galactose.

Pentose phosphate pathway.........................................................97

9.3. Biosynthesis of glucose – gluconeogenesis and glycogen

biosynthesis. Genetic metabolic glycogen.................................103

Chapter 10. Lipid metabolism and its regulation............................108

10.1. Lipid Metabolism: catabolism of triacyl glycerols,

the regulation of lipolysis. Metabolism of

ketone bodies ...........................................................................108

10.2. The biosynthesis of the active form of higher fatty acids........ 114

5

10.3. Biosynthesis and biotransformation of cholesterol, bile acids.

Pathology of lipid metabolism: steatorreya, obesity,

atherosclerosis.......................................................................... 119

Chapter 11. Metabolism of amino acids.

Enzymopathology of amino acid metabolism..............124

11.1. General ways of amino acids transformation...........................125

11.2 Detoxication of ammonia, urea biosynthesis............................129

11.3. Specialized ways of sharing the noncyclic and cyclic amino

acids. The biosynthesis of glutathione and creatine.

Enzymopathology of amino acid metabolism..........................132

Section IV. Molecular Biology. Biochemistry

of intercellular communication...................................141

Chapter 12. Fundamentals of molecular biology ...........................141

12.1. Biochemical functions of nucleotides and nucleic acids .........141

12.2. Biosynthesis and catabolism of purine and pyrimidine

nucleotides. Hereditary metabolic uric acid disturbances........141

12.3. Enzymes and molecular mechanisms of DNA replication.

Transcription – RNA biosynthesis...........................................147

12.4. Protein biosynthesis in ribosomes. Stages and mechanism of

translation, regulation of broadcasting. Antibiotics inhibitors of

transcription and translation.....................................................150

Chapter 13. Basics of molecular genetics.......................................153

13.1. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes 153

13.2. Molecular mechanisms of mutations. DNA reparation............154

Chapter 14. Molecular mechanisms of hormones action

on target cells................................................................155

14.1. Molecular-cellular mechanisms of the hormonal

signal transfer...........................................................................155

Chapter 15. Biochemistry hormonal regulation.............................159

15.1. Hormonal regulation of metabolism and cellular functions: the

hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland.

Regulation of calcium homeostasis .........................................159

15.2. Hormones of the pancreas. Regulation of carbohydrate

metabolism...............................................................................166

6

15.3. Hormones of adrenal and sex glands. Physiologically active

eicosanoids...............................................................................172

Section V. Biochemistry of tissues

and physiological functions..........................................183

Chapter 16. Biochemistry of human nutrition. Nutrition ..............183

16.1. Mechanisms of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract ....183

16.2. Vitamins as components of nutrition: exogenous

and endogenous hypovitaminosis............................................187

16.3. Lipid-soluble vitamins, antioxidants........................................196

Chapter 17. Biochemistry and patobiohemistry of blood ...............201

17.1. Biochemical composition of blood in health and disease:

acute phase inflammatory proteins,

enzymes of blood plasma.........................................................201

17.2. Non-proteinaceous nitrogen-containing and nitrogen-free

organic components of blood. Plasma lipoproteins.................203

17.3. The respiratory function of erythrocytes. Acid-base status,

the buffer system of blood .......................................................205

17.4. Coagulant, anticoagulant and fibrtynolytic system of blood ...209

17.5. Biochemistry of immune processes and biochemical

mechanisms of immunodeficiency condition...........................216

Chapter 18. Functional and clinical biochemistry of organs

and tissues.....................................................................218

18.1. Biochemical functions of the liver. Porphyrin metabolism:

the metabolism of bile pigments, Biochemistry of jaundice....218

18.2. Biotransformation of xenobiotics and endogenous toxins

in the liver: microsomal oxidation, cytochrome P-450............223

18.3. Urine production in kidney. Normal and pathological

components of urine.................................................................224

18.4. Biochemistry of muscle, muscle contraction and connective

tissue ........................................................................................229

18.5. Biochemistry of nervous tissue. Pathobiochemistry of mental

disorders...................................................................................235

REFERENCES .................................................................................240

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Біологічна і біоорганічна хімія (англ. мовою). Biological and bioorganical chemisrty. Навч. посібник. Рек. МОНУ Мардашко О.О.

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Біологічна і біоорганічна хімія (англ. мовою). Biological and bioorganical chemisrty. Навч. посібник. Рек. МОНУ Мардашко О.О.